Next Previous Contents

2. Traditional Artificial Intelligence

Traditional AI is based around the ideas of logic, rule systems, linguistics, and the concept of rationality. At its roots are programming languages such as Lisp and Prolog. Expert systems are the largest successful example of this paradigm. An expert system consists of a detailed knowledge base and a complex rule system to utilize it. Such systems have been used for such things as medical diagnosis support and credit checking systems.

2.1 AI class/code libraries

These are libraries of code or classes for use in programming within the artificial intelligence field. They are not meant as stand alone applications, but rather as tools for building your own applications.


ACL2 (A Computational Logic for Applicative Common Lisp) is a theorem prover for industrial applications. It is both a mathematical logic and a system of tools for constructing proofs in the logic. ACL2 works with GCL (GNU Common Lisp).

AI Search II

Submitted by: Peter M. Bouthoorn

Basically, the library offers the programmer a set of search algorithms that may be used to solve all kind of different problems. The idea is that when developing problem solving software the programmer should be able to concentrate on the representation of the problem to be solved and should not need to bother with the implementation of the search algorithm that will be used to actually conduct the search. This idea has been realized by the implementation of a set of search classes that may be incorporated in other software through C++'s features of derivation and inheritance. The following search algorithms have been implemented:

This library has a corresponding book, " Object-Oriented Artificial Instelligence, Using C++".

Chess In Lisp (CIL)

The CIL (Chess In Lisp) foundation is a Common Lisp implementaion of all the core functions needed for development of chess applications. The main purpose of the CIL project is to get AI researchers interested in using Lisp to work in the chess domain.


A library for the Python programming language that provides an object oriented interface to the CLIPS expert system tool. It includes an interface to COOL (CLIPS Object Oriented Language) that allows:


The Hidden Markov Model Toolkit (HTK) is a portable toolkit for building and manipulating hidden Markov models. HTK consists of a set of library modules and tools available in C source form. The tools provide sophisticated facilities for speech analysis, HMM training, testing and results analysis. The software supports HMMs using both continuous density mixture Gaussians and discrete distributions and can be used to build complex HMM systems. The HTK release contains extensive documentation and examples.


LK is an implementation of the Lin-Kernighan heuristic for the Traveling Salesman Problem and for the minimum weight perfect matching problem. It is tuned for 2-d geometric instances, and has been applied to certain instances with up to a million cities. Also included are instance generators and Perl scripts for munging TSPLIB instances.

This implementation introduces ``efficient cluster compensation'', an experimental algorithmic technique intended to make the Lin-Kernighan heuristic more robust in the face of clustered data.


The Computer Music Project at CMU is developing computer music and interactive performance technology to enhance human musical experience and creativity. This interdisciplinary effort draws on Music Theory, Cognitive Science, Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning, Human Computer Interaction, Real-Time Systems, Computer Graphics and Animation, Multimedia, Programming Languages, and Signal Processing. A paradigmatic example of these interdisciplinary efforts is the creation of interactive performances that couple human musical improvisation with intelligent computer agents in real-time.


Public Domain Knowledge Bank (PDKB) is an Artificial Intelligence Knowledge Bank of common sense rules and facts. It is based on the Cyc Upper Ontology and the MELD language.

Python Fuzzy Logic Module

A simple python module for fuzzy logic. The file is 'fuz.tar.gz' in this directory. The author plans to also write a simple genetic algorithm and a neural net library as well. Check the 00_index file in this directory for release info.


QUANT/1 stands for type QUANTifier. It aims to be an alternative to Prolog-like (Resulutional-like) systems. Main features include a lack of necessity for eliminating Quantifiers, scolemisation, ease of comprehension, large scale formulae operation, acceptance of nonHorn formulaes, and Iterative deeping. The actual library implemented in this project is called ATPPCF (Automatic Theorem Prover in calculus of Positively Constructed Formulae).

ATPPCF will be a library (inference engine) and an extension of the Predicate Calculus Language as a new logical language. The library will be incorporable in another software such as TCL, Python, Perl. The engine's primary inference method will be the "search of inference in language of Positively Constructed Formulas (PCFs)" (a subset of Predicate Calculus well translated in both directions). The language will be used as scripting language to the engine. But there will be possibility to replace it with extensions languages of main software.


Screamer is an extension of Common Lisp that adds support for nondeterministic programming. Screamer consists of two levels. The basic nondeterministic level adds support for backtracking and undoable side effects. On top of this nondeterministic substrate, Screamer provides a comprehensive constraint programming language in which one can formulate and solve mixed systems of numeric and symbolic constraints. Together, these two levels augment Common Lisp with practically all of the functionality of both Prolog and constraint logic programming languages such as CHiP and CLP(R). Furthermore, Screamer is fully integrated with Common Lisp. Screamer programs can coexist and interoperate with other extensions to Common Lisp such as CLOS, CLIM and Iterate.


ThoughtTreasure is a project to create a database of commonsense rules for use in any application. It consists of a database of a little over 100K rules and a C API to integrate it with your applications. Python, Perl, Java and TCL wrappers are already available.

2.2 AI software kits, applications, etc.

These are various applications, software kits, etc. meant for research in the field of artificial intelligence. Their ease of use will vary, as they were designed to meet some particular research interest more than as an easy to use commercial package.

ASA - Adaptive Simulated Annealing

ASA (Adaptive Simulated Annealing) is a powerful global optimization C-code algorithm especially useful for nonlinear and/or stochastic systems.

ASA is developed to statistically find the best global fit of a nonlinear non-convex cost-function over a D-dimensional space. This algorithm permits an annealing schedule for 'temperature' T decreasing exponentially in annealing-time k, T = T_0 exp(-c k^1/D). The introduction of re-annealing also permits adaptation to changing sensitivities in the multi-dimensional parameter-space. This annealing schedule is faster than fast Cauchy annealing, where T = T_0/k, and much faster than Boltzmann annealing, where T = T_0/ln k.


BABYLON is a modular, configurable, hybrid environment for developing expert systems. Its features include objects, rules with forward and backward chaining, logic (Prolog) and constraints. BABYLON is implemented and embedded in Common Lisp.


Cfengine, or the configuration engine is a very high level language for building expert systems which administrate and configure large computer networks. Cfengine uses the idea of classes and a primitive form of intelligence to define and automate the configuration of large systems in the most economical way possible. Cfengine is design to be a part of computer immune systems.


The CLEARS system is an interactive graphical environment for computational semantics. The tool allows exploration and comparison of different semantic formalisms, and their interaction with syntax. This enables the user to get an idea of the range of possibilities of semantic construction, and also where there is real convergence between theories.


CLIG is an interactive, extendible grapher for visualizing linguistic data structures like trees, feature structures, Discourse Representation Structures (DRS), logical formulas etc. All of these can be freely mixed and embedded into each other. The grapher has been designed both to be stand-alone and to be used as an add-on for linguistic applications which display their output in a graphical manner.


CLIPS is a productive development and delivery expert system tool which provides a complete environment for the construction of rule and/or object based expert systems.

CLIPS provides a cohesive tool for handling a wide variety of knowledge with support for three different programming paradigms: rule-based, object-oriented and procedural. Rule-based programming allows knowledge to be represented as heuristics, or "rules of thumb," which specify a set of actions to be performed for a given situation. Object-oriented programming allows complex systems to be modeled as modular components (which can be easily reused to model other systems or to create new components). The procedural programming capabilities provided by CLIPS are similar to capabilities found in languages such as C, Pascal, Ada, and LISP.

EMA-XPS - A Hybrid Graphic Expert System Shell

EMA-XPS is a hybrid graphic expert system shell based on the ASCII-oriented shell Babylon 2.3 of the German National Research Center for Computer Sciences (GMD). In addition to Babylon's AI-power (object oriented data representation, forward and backward chained rules - collectible into sets, horn clauses, and constraint networks) a graphic interface based on the X11 Window System and the OSF/Motif Widget Library has been provided.


FOOL stands for the Fuzzy Organizer OLdenburg. It is a result from a project at the University of Oldenburg. FOOL is a graphical user interface to develop fuzzy rulebases. FOOL will help you to invent and maintain a database that specifies the behavior of a fuzzy-controller or something like that.

FOX is a small but powerful fuzzy engine which reads this database, reads some input values and calculates the new control value.


FUF is an extended implementation of the formalism of functional unification grammars (FUGs) introduced by Martin Kay specialized to the task of natural language generation. It adds the following features to the base formalism:

These extensions allow the development of large grammars which can be processed efficiently and can be maintained and understood more easily. SURGE is a large syntactic realization grammar of English written in FUF. SURGE is developed to serve as a black box syntactic generation component in a larger generation system that encapsulates a rich knowledge of English syntax. SURGE can also be used as a platform for exploration of grammar writing with a generation perspective.

The Grammar Workbench

The Grammar Workbench, or GWB for short, is an environment for the comfortable development of Affix Grammars in the AGFL-formalism. Its purposes are:

GSM Suite

The GSM Suite is a set of programs for using Finite State Machines in a graphical fashion. The suite consists of programs that edit, compile, and print state machines. Included in the suite is an editor program, gsmedit, a compiler, gsm2cc, that produces a C++ implementation of a state machine, a PostScript generator, gsm2ps, and two other minor programs. GSM is licensed under the GNU Public License and so is free for your use under the terms of that license.


Illuminator is a toolset for developing OCR and Image Understanding applications. Illuminator has two major parts: a library for representing, storing and retrieving OCR information, heretofore called dafslib, and an X-Windows "DAFS" file viewer, called illum. Illuminator and DAFS lib were designed to supplant existing OCR formats and become a standard in the industry. They particularly are extensible to handle more than just English.

The features of this release:


Isabelle is a popular generic theorem prover developed at Cambridge University and TU Munich. Existing logics like Isabelle/HOL provide a theorem proving environment ready to use for sizable applications. Isabelle may also serve as framework for rapid prototyping of deductive systems. It comes with a large library including Isabelle/HOL (classical higher-order logic), Isabelle/HOLCF (Scott's Logic for Computable Functions with HOL), Isabelle/FOL (classical and intuitionistic first-order logic), and Isabelle/ZF (Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory on top of FOL).

Jess, the Java Expert System Shell

Jess is a clone of the popular CLIPS expert system shell written entirely in Java. With Jess, you can conveniently give your applets the ability to 'reason'. Jess is compatible with all versions of Java starting with version 1.0.2. Jess implements the following constructs from CLIPS: defrules, deffunctions, defglobals, deffacts, and deftemplates.


Learn is a vocable learning program with memory model.


LISA (Lisp-based Intelligent Software Agents) is a production-rule system heavily influenced by JESS (Java Expert System Shell). It has at its core a reasoning engine based on the Rete pattern matching algorithm. LISA also provides the ability to reason over ordinary CLOS objects.


NICOLE (Nearly Intelligent Computer Operated Language Examiner) is a theory or experiment that if a computer is given enough combinations of how words, phrases and sentences are related to one another, it could talk back to you. It is an attempt to simulate a conversation by learning how words are related to other words. A human communicates with NICOLE via the keyboard and NICOLE responds back with its own sentences which are automatically generated, based on what NICOLE has stored in it's database. Each new sentence that has been typed in, and NICOLE doesn't know about, is included into NICOLE's database, thus extending the knowledge base of NICOLE.

Otter: An Automated Deduction System

Our current automated deduction system Otter is designed to prove theorems stated in first-order logic with equality. Otter's inference rules are based on resolution and paramodulation, and it includes facilities for term rewriting, term orderings, Knuth-Bendix completion, weighting, and strategies for directing and restricting searches for proofs. Otter can also be used as a symbolic calculator and has an embedded equational programming system.


PVS is a verification system: that is, a specification language integrated with support tools and a theorem prover. It is intended to capture the state-of-the-art in mechanized formal methods and to be sufficiently rugged that it can be used for significant applications. PVS is a research prototype: it evolves and improves as we develop or apply new capabilities, and as the stress of real use exposes new requirements.


Ripper is a system for fast effective rule induction. Given a set of data, Ripper will learn a set of rules that will predict the patterns in the data. Ripper is written in ASCI C and comes with documentation and some sample problems.


The long-term goal of The SNePS Research Group is the design and construction of a natural-language-using computerized cognitive agent, and carrying out the research in artificial intelligence, computational linguistics, and cognitive science necessary for that endeavor. The three-part focus of the group is on knowledge representation, reasoning, and natural-language understanding and generation. The group is widely known for its development of the SNePS knowledge representation/reasoning system, and Cassie, its computerized cognitive agent.


Soar has been developed to be a general cognitive architecture. We intend ultimately to enable the Soar architecture to:

In other words, our intention is for Soar to support all the capabilities required of a general intelligent agent. tcm/index.html


TCM (Toolkit for Conceptual Modeling) is our suite of graphical editors. TCM contains graphical editors for Entity-Relationship diagrams, Class-Relationship diagrams, Data and Event Flow diagrams, State Transition diagrams, Jackson Process Structure diagrams and System Network diagrams, Function Refinement trees and various table editors, such as a Function-Entity table editor and a Function Decomposition table editor. TCM is easy to use and performs numerous consistency checks, some of them immediately, some of them upon request.


WEKA (Waikato Environment for Knowledge Analysis) is an state-of-the-art facility for applying machine learning techniques to practical problems. It is a comprehensive software "workbench" that allows people to analyse real-world data. It integrates different machine learning tools within a common framework and a uniform user interface. It is designed to support a "simplicity-first" methodology, which allows users to experiment interactively with simple machine learning tools before looking for more complex solutions.

Next Previous Contents